## § 3.7 Homomorphisms: Solved problems

17. Find all group homomorphisms from Z4 into Z10.

Solution: Example 3.7.5 shows that any group homomorphism from Zn into Zk must have the form
µ ( [x]n ) = [mx]k, for all [x]n in Zn. Under any group homomorphism
µ : Z4 -> Z10, the order of µ ([1]4) must be a divisor of 4 and of 10, so the only possibilities are 1 and 2. Thus
µ ([1]4) = [0]10, which defines the zero function, or else

µ ([1]4) = [5]10, which leads to the formula µ ([x]4) = [5x]10, for all [x]4 in Z4.




18. (a) Find the formulas for all group homomorphisms from Z18 into Z30.

Solution: Example 3.7.5 shows that any group homomorphism from Z18 into Z30 must have the form
µ ( [x]18 ) = [mx]30, for all [x]18 in Z18. Since
gcd (18,30) = 6, the possible orders of
[m]30 = µ ([1]18) are 1,2,3,6.
The corresponding choices for [m]30 are
[0]30, of order 1,
[15]30, of order 2,
[10]30 and [20]30, of order 3, and
[5]30 and [25]30, of order 6.

(b) Choose one of the nonzero formulas in part (a), and for this formula find the kernel and image, and show how elements of the image correspond to cosets of the kernel.

Solution: For example, consider µ ([x]18) = [5x]30. The image of µ consists of the multiples of 5 in Z30, which are
0,5,10,15,20,25. We have ker (µ) = {0,6,12}, and then cosets of the kernel are defined by adding
1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. We have the following correspondence

{ 0,6,12 }   <--> µ (0) = 0,
{ 3,9,15 }   <--> µ (3) = 15,
{ 1,7,13 }   <--> µ (1) = 5,
{ 4,10,16 } <--> µ (4) = 20,
{ 2,8,14 }   <--> µ (2) = 10,
{ 5,11,17 } <--> µ (5) = 25.




19. (a) Show that Z7× is cyclic, with generator [3]7.

Solution: Since 32 2 and 33 6, it follows that [3] must have order 6.

(b) Show that Z17× is cyclic, with generator [3]17.

Solution: The element [3] is a generator for Z17×, since

32 = 9,
33 = 27 10,
34 3 · 10 13,
35 3 · 13 5,
36 3 · 5 15,
37 3 · 15 11,
38 3 · 11 16 1.

(c) Completely determine all group homomorphisms from Z17× into Z7×.

Solution: Any group homomorphism µ : Z17× -> Z7× is determined by its value on the generator [3]17, and the order of µ([3]17) must be a common divisor of 16 and 6. The only possible orders are 1 and 2, so either
µ ( [3]17 ) = [1]7 or µ ( [3]17 ) = [-1]7. In the first case,
µ ( [x]17 ) = [1]7 for all [x]17 in Z17×, and in the second case
µ ( ([3]17)n ) = [-1]n7, for all [x]17 = ([3]17)n in Z17×.




20. Define µ : Z4 × Z6 -> Z4 × Z3 by µ (x,y) = (x+2y, y).

(a) Show that µ is a well-defined group homomorphism.

Solution: If y1 y2 (mod 6), then 2y1 - 2y2 is divisible by 12, so
2y1 2y2 (mod 4), and then it follows quickly that µ is a well-defined function. It is also easy to check that µ preserves addition.

(b) Find the kernel and image of µ, and apply the fundamental homomorphism theorem.

Solution: If (x,y) belongs to ker (µ), then y 0 (mod 3), so y = 0 or y = 3. If y = 0, then x = 0, and if y = 3, then x = 2. Thus the elements of the kernel K are (0,0) and (2,3). It follows that there are 24 / 2 = 12 cosets of the kernel. These cosets are in one-to-one correspondence with the elements of the image, so µ must map Z4 × Z6 onto Z4 × Z3. Thus

(Z4 × Z6) / { (0,0), (2,3) } Z4 × Z3 .




21. Let n and m be positive integers, such that m is a divisor of n. Show that
µ : Zn× -> Zm× defined by

µ ( [x]n ) = [x]m,     for all [x]n in Zn×,

is a well-defined group homomorphism.

Solution: First, µ is a well-defined function, since if
[x1]n = [x2]n belongs to Zn×, then
n | (x1 - x2), and this implies that
m | (x1 - x2), since m | n. Thus
[x1]m = [x2]m, and so µ ([x1]n) = µ ([x2]n).

Next, µ is a homomorphism since for [a]n, [b]n in Zn×,

µ ([a]n [b]n) = µ ([ab]n) = [ab]m = [a]m [b]m = µ ([a]n) µ ([b]n) .




22. For the group homomorphism µ : Z36× -> Z12× defined by

µ ( [x]36 ) = [x]12,     for all [x]36 in Z36×,

find the kernel and image of µ, and apply the fundamental homomorphism theorem.

Solution: Problem 21 shows that µ is a group homomorphism. It is evident that µ maps Z36× onto Z12×, since if gcd (x,12) = 1, then gcd (x,36) = 1. The kernel of µ consists of the elements in Z36× that are congruent to 1 mod 12, namely
[1]36, [13]36, [25]36. It follows that
Z12× Z36× / < [13]36 >.




23. Let G, G1, and G2 be groups. Let µ1 : G -> G1 and µ2 : G -> G2 be group homomorphisms. Prove that
µ : G -> G1 × G2 defined by

µ (x) = (µ1 (x), µ2 (x) ),     for all x in G,

is a well-defined group homomorphism.

Solution: Given a, b in G, we have

µ (a b) = ( µ1 (ab), µ2 (ab) )
= ( µ1 (a) µ1 (b), µ2 (a) µ2 (b))

µ (a) µ (b) =( µ1 (a), µ2 (a)) · ( µ1 (b), µ2 (b))
= ( µ1 (a) µ1 (b), µ2 (a) µ2 (b))

and so µ : G -> G1 × G2 is a group homomorphism.




24. Let p and q be different odd primes. Prove that Zpq× is isomorphic to the direct product Zp× × Zq× .

Solution: Using Problem 21, we can define group homomorphisms
µ1 : Zpq× -> Zp× and µ2 : Zpq× -> Zq× by setting
µ1 ( [x]pq ) = [x]p, for all [x]pq in Zpq×, and
µ2 ( [x]pq ) = [x]q, for all [x]pq in Zpq×.

Using Problem 23, we can define a group homomorphism
µ : Zpq× -> Zp× × Zq× by setting
µ ([x]pq) = (µ1 ([x]pq), µ2 ([x]pq) ), for all [x]pq in Zpq×.
If [x]pq in ker (µ), then [x]p = [1]p and [x]q = [1]q,
so p | (x-1) and q | (x-1), and this implies that pq | (x-1),
since p and q are relatively prime. It follows that
[x]pq = [1]pq, and this shows that µ is a one-to-one function.
Exercise 1.4.27 in the text states that if
m > 0 and n > 0 are relatively prime integers, then
(mn) = (m) (n). It follows that
Zpq× and Zp× × Zq× have the same order, so µ is also an onto function.
This completes the proof that µ is a group isomorphism.




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