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Encoding words with ISO8859 characters

Here is a list of the words in the blue index pages and purple navigation pages only which contain characters outside the 7-bit ASCII character set. Usually these are the characters which appear on the screen as accented letters. The only reason the typical visitor to this site should have to examine this list is when searching for a word on this list: there is a search engine for the index pages, but in order to search for, say, "Gödel" you must match the character string exactly as it appears in these index files. The embedding we use is the ISO8859 character set embedded with "HTML entity codes", in this case "Gödel". The purpose of this document is to show the encoding needed to search for such terms.

Note that the "Selected Topics" files on the other hand are stored in flat text, usually ASCII, so if searching those files (there is a different search tool for this task at the search page above), you may type simple ASCII strings (e.g. "Godel"); but the translation to the weaker character set is not done consistently, so e.g. you will not match the string "Goedel" in this way, even though that is jast as valid a transliteration.

Also note that names which cannot be expressed with Latin-1 letters cannot be guaranteed to display properly in HTML browsers, so we have resorted to transliterations for those names (usually Russian, some Asian names). This includes making approximations for names and words using extended-Latin character sets, e.g. we write "Erdös" even though the right fourth letter would have a double acute accent, not an umlaut, and we write "Lukasiewicz" even though the first letter should have a slash through it.

For your convenience, we first list all the names and words used in the index pages at this site which contain these "entity codes"; following that we give a complete list of all the ISO characters and their encodings.

If your browser enables you to capture text from the screen and paste it into a dialogue box, you may want to do so to copy the characters from the last column into the search-page entry form, if you wish to search the index pages at this site for any of the character strings shown below.

Ampere Ampère Ampère
Andras András András
Andre André André
Arzela Arzelà Arzelà
Asterisque Astérisque Astérisque
Bezier Bézier Bézier
Birkhauser Birkhäuser Birkhäuser
Bruske Brüske Brüske
Caratheodory Carathéodory Carathéodory
Cesaro Cesàro Cesàro
Chvatal Chvátal Chvátal
Dieudonne Dieudonné Dieudonné
Drinfeld Drinfel´d Drinfel´d
Elie Élie Élie
Erdos Erdös Erdös
Erne Erné Erné
Evariste Évariste Évariste
Faa Faà Faà
Fejer Fejér Fejér
Fornaess Fornæss Fornæss
Francois François François
Frechet Fréchet Fréchet
Frederic Frédéric Frédéric
Garding Gårding Gårding
Gateaux Gâteaux Gâteaux
Gerald Gérald Gérald
Godel Gödel Gödel
Gunter Günter Günter
Gunther Günther Günther
Geneve Genève Genève
Gouvea Gouvêa Gouvêa
Gratzer Grätzer Grätzer
Grobner Gröbner Gröbner
Grotschel Grötschel Grötschel
Grunbaum Grünbaum Grünbaum
Haim Haïm Haïm
Holder Hölder Hölder
Janich Jänich Jänich
Jorgens Jörgens Jörgens
Jiri Jirí Jirí
Kahler Kähler Kähler
Kahlerian Kählerian Kählerian
Kohnen Köhnen Köhnen
Koningsberg Köningsberg Köningsberg
Kozl Közl Közl
Krotenheerdt Krötenheerdt Krötenheerdt
Lame Lamé Lamé
Lanczos Lánczos Lánczos
Laszlo László László
Lob Löb Löb
Lowenheim Löwenheim Löwenheim
Lowner Löwner Löwner
Lucke Lücke Lücke
Lutkepohl Lütkepohl Lütkepohl
Lame Lamé Lamé
Loeve Loève Loève
Loubere Loubère Loubère
Lovasz Lovász Lovász
Mobius Möbius Möbius
Mikhalev Mikhalëv Mikhalëv
Montreal Montréal Montréal
Pankratev Pankrat´ev Pankrat´ev
Perjes Perjés Perjés
Poincare Poincaré Poincaré
Prufer Prüfer Prüfer
Ptolemee Ptolémée Ptolémée
Remi Rémi Rémi
Rene René René
Ruckl Rückl Rückl
Sarkozy Sárközy Sárközy
Sannas Sannäs Sannäs
Schon Schön Schön
Schonemann Schönemann Schönemann
Schonflies Schönflies Schönflies
Schrodinger Schrödinger Schrödinger
Shokichi Shôkichi Shôkichi
Shnirelman Shnirel´man Shnirel´man
Stefane Stéfane Stéfane
Stensones Stensønes Stensønes
Szasz Szász Sz&aaucte;sz
Szego Szegö Szegö
Teichmuller Teichmüller Teichmüller
Toth Tóth Tóth
Tubingen Tübingen Tübingen
Turan Turán Turán
Viete Viète Viète
Wurzburg Würzburg Würzburg
Zoltan Zoltán Zoltán
academie académie académie
adeles adèles adèles
algebre algèbre algèbre
algebres algèbres algèbres
appliquees appliquées appliquées
apres après après
arithmetiques arithmétiques arithmétiques
asterisque astérisque astérisque
beitrage beiträge beiträge
degre degré degré
differentielles différentielles différentielles
ecole école école
elementaire élémentaire élémentaire
equation équation équation
fuhrer führer führer
fur für für
francais français français
geometries géométries géométries
handworterbuch handwörterbuch handwörterbuch
ideles idèles idèles
journees journées journées
lehrbucher lehrbücher lehrbücher
lineaire linéaire linéaire
mecanique mécanique mécanique
mathematique mathématique mathématique
mathematiques mathématiques mathématiques
multilineaire multilinéaire multilinéaire
numerique numérique numérique
operationnelle opérationnelle opérationnelle
ordonnees ordonnées ordonnées
progres progrès progrès
raume räume räume
recents récents récents
reelle réelle réelle
resolution résolution résolution
seminaire séminaire séminaire
ser sér sér
sesquilineaires sesquilinéaires sesquilinéaires
superieure supérieure supérieure
theorie théorie théorie
theories théories théories
uber über über
ubungsbuch übungsbuch übungsbuch
universita università università
universite université université
varietes variétés variétés

The HTML character set

HTML 1.0 assumes a character set for transmission to be ISO8859 (Latin-1). This includes 256 characters; the first 128 coincide with ASCII 7-bit. The others may be represented in several ways. Here we list, for each character,

  1. its ordinal number in decimal
  2. the same number, in octal (e.g. the Unix command to change "¡" to "!" would be "cat filename | tr \241 \041"
  3. the same number, in hexadecimal (e.g. an extended URL might include the string "%A1" to transmit the character "¡"; a MIME encoding would be "=A1")
  4. a single 8-bit character (as stored in European documents, say)
  5. the HTML "entity name" for the character (e.g. we enter the ASCII string "¡" into the HTML files at this site to render a "¡")
  6. the rendering of that HTML entity (if your browser is HTML 1.0 compliant, this should be e.g. an inverted exclamation mark. For most browsers, this will appear identical to the character two columns earlier.)
A compliant browser should also allow reference to a character by its decimal ordinal number, e.g. the ASCII string "¡" should also produce an inverted exclamation mark. (Your browser renders this as "¡").

In these pages we use none of the non-printing characters (&#001 or ctrl-A, etc.) except line-feeds (&#010; or ctrl-J) and spaces (&#032;) -- in particular we do not use tabs (&#009; or ctrl-I) or carriage-returns (&#013; or ctrl-M). Since the ampersand (&), less-than (<), and greater-than (>) characters have special meaning in HTML files, we encode them using entity names, too: "&amp;", "&lt;", and "&gt;", respectively. Finally, we avoid dollar-signs "$" to avoid a possible conflict with TeX encodings; when the symbol is needed, we use the decimal HTML code "&#036" since for some reason the entity code "&dollar;" is not recognized here.

The printing ASCII characters are those with (decimal) ordinals 33 "!" to 126 "~". Character numbers 127 through 159 are unassigned (but see below); the rest of the HTML 1.0 character set is as follows:

.decimal. ..octal.. hexadecimal ..8-bit.. .entity. rendered
160 240 A0 &nbsp;  
161 241 A1 &iexcl; ¡
162 242 A2 &cent; ¢
163 243 A3 &pound; £
164 244 A4 &curren; ¤
165 245 A5 &yen; ¥
166 246 A6 &brvbar; ¦
167 247 A7 &sect; §
168 250 A8 &uml; ¨
169 251 A9 &copy; ©
170 252 AA &ordf; ª
171 253 AB &laquo; «
172 254 AC &not; ¬
173 255 AD &shy; ­
174 256 AE &reg; ®
175 257 AF &macr; ¯
176 260 B0 &deg; °
177 261 B1 &plusmn; ±
178 262 B2 &sup2; ²
179 263 B3 &sup3; ³
180 264 B4 &acute; ´
181 265 B5 &micro; µ
182 266 B6 &para;
183 267 B7 &middot; ·
184 270 B8 &cedil; ¸
185 271 B9 &sup1; ¹
186 272 BA &ordm; º
187 273 BB &raquo; »
188 274 BC &frac14; ¼
189 275 BD &frac12; ½
190 276 BE &frac34; ¾
191 277 BF &iquest; ¿
192 300 C0 &Agrave; À
193 301 C1 &Aacute; Á
194 302 C2 &Acirc; Â
195 303 C3 &Atilde; Ã
196 304 C4 &Auml; Ä
197 305 C5 &Aring; Å
198 306 C6 &AElig; Æ
199 307 C7 &Ccedil; Ç
200 310 C8 &Egrave; È
201 311 C9 &Eacute; É
202 312 CA &Ecirc; Ê
203 313 CB &Euml; Ë
204 314 CC &Igrave; Ì
205 315 CD &Iacute; Í
206 316 CE &Icirc; Î
207 317 CF &Iuml; Ï
208 320 D0 &ETH; Ð
209 321 D1 &Ntilde; Ñ
210 322 D2 &Ograve; Ò
211 323 D3 &Oacute; Ó
212 324 D4 &Ocirc; Ô
213 325 D5 &Otilde; Õ
214 326 D6 &Ouml; Ö
215 327 D7 &times; ×
216 330 D8 &Oslash; Ø
217 331 D9 &Ugrave; Ù
218 332 DA &Uacute; Ú
219 333 DB &Ucirc; Û
220 334 DC &Uuml; Ü
221 335 DD &Yacute; Ý
222 336 DE &THORN; Þ
223 337 DF &szlig; ß
224 340 E0 &agrave; à
225 341 E1 &aacute; á
226 342 E2 &acirc; â
227 343 E3 &atilde; ã
228 344 E4 &auml; ä
229 345 E5 &aring; å
230 346 E6 &aelig; æ
231 347 E7 &ccedil; ç
232 350 E8 &egrave; è
233 351 E9 &eacute; é
234 352 EA &ecirc; ê
235 353 EB &euml; ë
236 354 EC &igrave; ì
237 355 ED &iacute; í
238 356 EE &icirc; î
239 357 EF &iuml; ï
240 360 F0 &eth; ð
241 361 F1 &ntilde; ñ
242 362 F2 &ograve; ò
243 363 F3 &oacute; ó
244 364 F4 &ocirc; ô
245 365 F5 &otilde; õ
246 366 F6 &ouml; ö
247 367 F7 &divide; ÷
248 370 F8 &oslash; ø
249 371 F9 &ugrave; ù
250 372 FA &uacute; ú
251 373 FB &ucirc; û
252 374 FC &uuml; ü
253 375 FD &yacute; ý
254 376 FE &thorn; þ
255 377 FF &yuml; ÿ

Although HTML1.0 does not specify a character to be rendered for decimal codes 127-159, a few of those codes are treated consistently by a number of recent browsers; they are shown below. (This is primarily a Microsoft convention.) Please note that since these characters are neither specified by standard nor universally recognized by browsers, they are not used in these documents. They are simply listed below for your experimentation! (the last column is rendered with e.g. "&#128;", etc., since entity codes are not available.)

.decimal. ..octal.. hexadecimal ..8-bit.. .entity. rendered
128 200 80 [none]
129 201 81 [none] 
130 202 82 [']
131 203 83 [none] ƒ
132 204 84 ["]
133 205 85 [...]
134 206 86 [/-]
135 207 87 [/=]
136 210 88 [none] ˆ
137 211 89 [0/00]
138 212 8A [none] Š
139 213 8B [<]
140 214 8C [none] Œ
141 215 8D [none] 
142 216 8E [none] Ž
143 217 8F [none] 
144 220 90 [none] 
145 221 91 [`]
146 222 92 [']
147 223 93 ["]
148 224 94 ["]
149 225 95 [o]
150 226 96 [-]
151 227 97 [-]
152 230 98 [~] ˜
153 231 99 [(TM), ™ ™]
154 232 9A [none] š
155 233 9B [>]
156 234 9C [none] œ
157 235 9D [none] 
158 236 9E [none] ž
159 237 9F [none] Ÿ

HTML 1.0 uses the ISO8859 character set as the medium of data exchange. For background information on this decision see (http://www.uni-passau.de/~ramsch/iso8859-1.html). For more information visit htmlgoodies.com and search under "character set" You can view other tables of ISO characters by decimal number (http://ucs.orst.edu/~ramsperg/framed_iso.html) or entity name (http://www.htmlgoodies.com/tutors/&command.html)

HTML 4.0 will use the Universal Character Set (UCS) as its character set; UCS is a character-by-character equivalent to Unicode 2.0. Unfortunately, most browsers are not yet ready to display these characters. For more information and a few of the "next generation" characters, see
To really whet your appetite for the symbols which will be available for web documents once this standard is widely accepted, look at the Unicode charts at http://charts.unicode.org/charts.html.

You can reach this page through http://www.math-atlas.org/welcome.html
Last modified 2000/12/17 by Dave Rusin. Mail: rusin@math.niu.edu