68: Computer science
Computer science, today more accurately a separate discipline, considers a number of rather mathematical topics. In addition to computability questions arising from many problems in discrete mathematics, and logic questions related to recursion theory, one must consider scheduling questions, stochastic models, and so on.
Computer Science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes.
For papers involving machine computations and programs in a specific mathematical area, See Section --04 in that area. This includes computational issues in group theory, number theory, statistics, and so on.
In particular, for numerical linear algebra see linear algebra, and for graph-theoretic questions such as the traveling salesman problem or scheduling algorithms, see Combinatorics.
Issues of numerical stability of algorithms, rates of convergence, and so on form the field of numerical analysis.
For cellular automata see Dynamical systems
The word programming in this context is essentially unrelated to the use of the word in e.g. Linear Programming. For that topic see 90: Optimization.
This image slightly hand-edited for clarity.
This is among the largest areas in the Math Reviews database. This is largely because subfield 68Q (computing theory) is among the largest of the three-digits subfields in the database; the extent to which that literature is part of mathematics is not clear. Apart from that area (which is nearly half the total), Computer Science would be nearer the average size of the disciplines. Starting in 2000, much of the material in 68Q is moved elsewhere in section 68. Also 68U05 (computational geometry) is one of the largest 5-digit areas.
Section 68 has been reorganized into subdisciplines several times, including in 1990 and 2000. To increase clarity, this map was made using only data from 1991-1999.
Browse all (old) classifications for this area at the AMS.
Surely Knuth, "The Art of Computer Programming":
Online Dictionary of computing.
Large bibliography on theory/foundations of computer science
Schank, Roger C., "What is AI, anyway?" The foundations of artificial intelligence, 3--13; Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1990. CMP1114137
Kallay, Michael: "Convex hull made easy", Inform. Process. Lett. 22 (1986), no. 3, 161. CMP833183
Van Hove, H.; Verschoren, A.: "What is `epistasis'?", Bull. Belg. Math. Soc. Simon Stevin 5 (1998), no. 1, 69--77. MR99c:68219
For the major all-in-one software products for handling general mathematical problems (e.g. Ma***, Ma****, etc.), see 68W30: Symbolic computation.
Software of more limited scope is usually mentioned on an appropriate page. See in particular the symbolic-computation resources for number theory and commutative algebra; many of the algorithms for those areas is incorporated in the more general-purpose software.